PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) control is a widely used control technique in engineering and automation for regulating various processes and systems. It’s known for its effectiveness in maintaining desired setpoints or reference values by continuously adjusting control outputs based on feedback from sensors. Here’s a brief overview of the PID control technique: 1. Proportional (P) Control: The […]


Creating a circuit to control a robot using the AT89C51 microcontroller (or similar) is a common and feasible project in the field of robotics and embedded systems. Here’s a simplified overview of what you’d need and how you can approach it: Components Needed: AT89C51 Microcontroller: This microcontroller will be the brain of your robot, responsible […]

mapping robot

Creating a mobile mapping robot with an array of sonar sensors and odometry is a challenging and rewarding project. While I can’t provide you with specific schematics, I can offer some guidance on where to find resources and how to approach the design of your sensor board: Online Electronics Communities: Websites and forums like Arduino […]

PLC-PC communication and control

Controlling a PLC’s I/O with a PC involves establishing communication between the PC and the PLC, typically through an industrial network or communication protocol. Here are the steps and considerations for setting up such a system: 1. Identify the PLC Model and Communication Options: Determine the model and make of your PLC. Different PLCs support […]

Fuel Dispensers Communication Protocols

Pump communication protocols, also known as fuel dispenser protocols, are proprietary or standardized communication protocols used to control and monitor fuel dispensers at gas stations. Here are some of the commonly used protocols in the fuel dispenser industry: Gilbarco Protocol: Gilbarco is a major manufacturer of fuel dispensers. They have their own proprietary protocols for […]